Table Wine from California Vinifera Grapes


Yield: Seventeen pounds of wine grapes will yield approximately one gallon of juice. 100 pounds of wine grapes (approx. 3 lugs) will make approximately seven gallons of first run wine requiring at least fifteen gallons of primary fermenter capacity.

Yeast: Prepare yeast starter several days in advance if not using Bacchus & Barleycorn pure liquid yeast starters.



  1. Prepare equipment. Sanitize all equipment with a solution of 2 oz. Sulphite Crystals (sodium metabisulphite) in one gallon of water. If your water pH is above 7.5 add 1 tsp. Acid Blend or Tartaric Acid to this solution.

  2. Crush and Destem Grapes: (This service is provided by Bacchus & Barleycorn with your California Grape order.)

  3. Adjustments: Mix ½ tsp. Pectic Enzyme, 1½ tsp. Bentonite and 1 tsp. Yeast Nutrient per gallon of must in the primary fermenter. Add ½ tsp Opti-Red per gallon. Acid and sugar levels occasionally need adjusting, although this is not common. Bacchus & Barleycorn will provide Specific Gravity, Brix, pH and Titratable Acid reading taken on grapes received on this order. There may be slight variation from lug to lug. If you wish, use your Hydrometer to test the sugar level. It should be between 1.090 and 1.100. If the specific gravity is low add cane sugar. One cup of cane sugar raises one gallon of must 0.021. Using your Acid Titration Kit, check the titratable (total) acid level. Make adjustmenst as appropriate using the table below. One teaspoon of Acid Blend raises one gallon of must .15%.


Dry White Wine

0.65 % - 0.75 %

Sweet White Wine

0.70 % - 0.85 %

Dry Red Wine

0.60 % - 0.70 %

Sweet Red Wine

0.65 % - 0.80 %



  1. Add 1 5/16 tsp Opti-Red to the must of each lug of grapes. Once these adjustments have been made and the temperature of the must is approximately the same as your yeast starter, add the yeast starter and cover with lid. Insert a fermentation lock half filled with sulphite solution if your lid has a gromet.


    24-48 hours after yeast inoculation, add 1-3¾ tsp FT Rouge Berry to the must of each lug of grapes.


  1. Break time: During fermentation the grape pulp will rise to the top of the fermenter forming a cap. This cap should be broken one to three times daily by mixing the pulp back into the juice.


  1. Free Run Wine

When the specific gravity reaches 1.020 - 1.030 (usually 2 - 5 days), it is time to rack the juice off the pulp and into a clean sanitized secondary fementer (carboy) and affix fermentation lock half filled with sulphite solution. If you are making a second run skip to step 7, otherwise continue. Press the remainder of the juice from the pulp and add it to the free run juice or ferment it separately as it usually produces a lower quality wine than the free run juice. Make sure your secondary fementers are filled to the neck. Too much head space in the secondary can lead to wild yeast and bacterial contamination, premature oxidation and/or a host of other problems. Skip to step 8.


  1. Second Run or False Wine

For each gallon of free run wine you took off in Step 6, add;

1 gallon water, two pounds of cane sugar, 1/2 tsp. Yeast Nutrient and 3 tsp. Acid Blend


96 oz. Grape Concentrate and water to equal run off, 1/2 tsp. Yeast Nutrient per gallon and 1 tsp. Acid Blend.


Allow to ferment 2-4 days and take the juice off the pulp when specific gravity reaches 1.010 - 1.020. Press the pulp to capture all the juice or repeat Second Run steps to make a third run.


Note: Second and third run wines mature more quickly than free run wines. The character body and color will also be lighter.


  1. Rack wine in three weeks (at this time the specific gravity should be 1.000 or less) leaving behind the heavy sediment. If there is more than a quart of must left in the carboy then you are discarding more of the lighter sediment than is really necessary. It is important to protect the wines from browning or oxidation as it briefly comes in contact with oxygen during handling. If you are NOT doing a Malo-Lactic fermentation, add ½ crushed Campden tablets per gallon of wine and DualFine (formerly Super-Kleer KC) according to the directions on the package at this time. See separate Malo-lactic fermentation instructions!


  1. The addition of oak to simulate barrel aging is recommended for most red wines. ½ ounces of StaVin Oak Beans per gallon of wine are recommended. Rack off the oak when the desired level of oak is attained. Maximum extraction is achieved in 8 weeks. Staves or spirals may also be used. Attach unflavored dental floss or fishing line to the hole in the end of the stave. Insert it into the carboy and hold in place with the airlock bung. Remove when the desired level of oaks is attained.


  1. Rack again every three months until the wine is clear and stable and you are ready to bottle. At each three month racking add ½ crushed Campden tablet per gallon of wine.


  1. When you are ready to bottle, if a sweeter wine is desired, add ½ tsp. Potassium Sorbate per gallon of wine 8-12 hours prior to sweetening. Sweeten to taste using Wine Conditioner, sugar syrup or grape concentrate. NOTE: If you have done an ML do NOT add Potassium Sorbate. Therefore, back sweetening is not an option.


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